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P'an Shih-ên


P'an Shih-ên 潘世恩 (T. 芝軒, 槐堂), Jan. 17, 1770-1854, May 16, official, was a native of Wu-hsien, Kiangsu. In 1793 he took his chin-shih degree, attaining the rank of chuang-yüan and compiler of the first class. Later (1798) he ranked first in the examination given to graduates of the Hanlin Academy. Henceforth, except for a period of eleven years (1816-27) when he retired to look after his father, he served the Empire continuously for some fifty years. He was appointed president or vice-president of five Boards: Board of Ceremonies, 1801-02; Board of War, 1802-04; Board of Revenue, 1804-06, 1813-14; Board of Civil Offices, 1806-13, 1827, 1831-33; Board of Works, 1813, 1830-31; and commissioner of education in three provinces (Yunnan, 1799-1801; Chekiang, 1804-07; Kiangsi, 1810-12). Twice he was in charge of the provincial examination at the capital (1808, 1839), and four times chief director of the Metropolitan Examination 1832, 1836, 1840, 1847). He became president of the Censorate (1827-30), director-general of the State Historiographer's Office (1833), and Grand Secretary (1833-50). In 1834 he was made a Grand Councilor of State, a post he held until 1849; in 1837, Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent; and in 1848, Grand Tutor. When Lin Tsê-hsü<>[q.v.] memorialized the throne on questions of foreign policy in 1840, P'an acquiesced in most of the suggestions and immediately recommended Lin for office. In his old age P'an was highly honored at Court. The Emperor gave him in 1834 a house near the Yüan-ming Yüan (see under Hung-li), and such special privileges as riding on horseback (1829) and in a chair (1843) within the precincts of the Imperial City; wearing the yellow jacket (1846); and the use of purple bridle reins (1848). In 1850, at the age of eighty-two (sui), his request to retire was granted. After his death he was canonized as Wên-kung 文恭 and his name was entered in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen.

P'an Shih-ên belonged to a family of distinguished scholars. One uncle, P'an I-chün 潘奕雋 (T. 守愚 H. 榕皋水雲漫士, 三松老人, 1740-1830), a chin-shih of 1769, was a painter and author whose literary collection, entitled 三松堂詩文集 San-sung t'ang shih wên-chi, contains 20 + 6 chüan of verse and 4 chüan of prose, reprinted in 1870-72. Another uncle, P'an I-tsao 潘奕藻 (T. 思質 H. 畏堂, 1744-1815), was a chin-shih of 1784. A son of P'an I-chün, named P'an Shih-huang 潘世璜 (T. 黼堂 H. 理齋, 1764-1829), was the third ranking chin-shih, or t'an-hua 探花, of 1795, and author of a work about painting, entitled 須靜齋雲煙過眼錄 Hsü-ching chai yün-yen kuo-yen lu, 1 chüan, published in 1930 in a reprint of the Mei-shu ts'ung-shu (see under K'ung Shang-jên).

P'an Shih-ên had four sons. The eldest, P'an Tsêng-i 潘會沂 (T. 功甫, 1792-1853), a chü-jên of 1816, left literary collections which were published in 1879 under the titles 小浮山人閉門集 Hsiao fu shan jên pi-mên chi, 6 chüan, and 船庵集 Ch'uan-an chi, 12 chüan. The second son, P'an Tsêng-ying 潘會瑩 (T. 申甫 H. 星齋, 1808-1878), a chin-shih of 1841, was vice-president of the Board of Works (1858-60) and a painter who left miscellaneous notes on painting and calligraphy under the titles 小鷗波館畫識 Hsiao-ou po kuan hua-chih, 3 chüan, (first printed about 1888); Hsiao-ou po kuan hua-chi (畫寄), 1 chuan ; and 墨緣小錄 Mo-yüan hsiao-lu, first printed about 1858 and reprinted in 1888. These works were reprinted in the 江氏聚珍板叢書 Chiang-shih [608] chü-chên pan ts'ung-shu (1924). A collection of P'an Tsêng-ying's prose works, entitled Hsiao-ou po kuan p'ien-t'i wên-ch'ao ( 駢體文鈔), 2 chüan, was printed in 1845; and a collection of verse, Hsiao-ou po kuan shih-ch'ao, was printed several times, one edition consisting of 12 + 2 chüan. For brief information about the third son, P'an Tsêng-shou, see under P'an Tsu-yin. The fourth son, P'an Tsêng-wei 潘曾瑋 (T. 玉泉 1819-1886), left a literary collection, 自鏡齋集 Tzŭ-ching chai chi, 5 chüan, which was printed in 1887. Of the grandsons of P'an Shih-ên, probably P'an Tsu-yin [q.v.] and P'an Tsu-t'ung 潘祖同 (T. 桐生 H. 譜琴, 1829-1902), a chin-shih of 1856, were the most distinguished.

The following six works by P'an Shih-ên may be mentioned: 思補齋筆記 Ssŭ-pu-chai pi-chi, essays, chiefly autobiographical, published in 1850 in 8 chüan ;讀史鏡古篇 Tu shih ching-ku p'ien, selected passages from history (from the Han to the Ming dynasty), published in 1824 in 32 chüan ;正學篇 Chêng hsüeh p'ien, 8 chüan, comprising proverbs and sayings selected from forty-three sources of the Sung, Yüan, and Ming periods, published in 1867, with annotations by P'an Tsêng-wei; Ssŭ-pu-chai shih-chi ( 詩集), 6 chüan, a collection of his poems, printed in 1850; an autobiography, entitled P'an Shih-ên tzŭ-ting nien-p'u (自訂年譜), printed in 1850 soon after his death; and his collected short prose writings in 9 chüan, entitled 有真意齋文集 Yu-chên-i chai wên-chi, which was printed in 1873.

[ 1/369/8b; 3/40/la; 5/3/10a; 7/23/43a; Wu-hsien chih (1933) 13/13a, 66 hsia /20a and passim.]