Chang Yü-chao

Chang Yü-chao 張裕釗 (T. 廉卿 H. 濂亭), 1833-1894, man of letters, was born in a village near Wuchang, Hupeh. His father, Chang Shan-chün 張善準 (T. 樹程, 平泉, H. 愚公 1796-1865), was a local scholar of some note. After studying under his father, he obtained in 1S46 his chü-jên degree, and in 1850 went to Peking where he was made a secretary of the Grand Secretariat. Late in 1852, when the Taipings threatened Wuchang, he returned to mss native place and shortly after became a member of the secretarial staff of Tsêng Kuo-fan [q.v.] with whom he had become acquainted during his stay in Peking. With Wu Ju-lun and Li Shu-ch'ang [qq.v.] he then studied diligently the belles-lettres of the T'ung-ch'êng school (see under Fang Pao). Unlike other foIlowers of Tsêng Kuo-fan he was indifferent to political and military affairs, hence he did not obtain an official position. After the Taipings had been subdued and Tsêng Kuo-fan twice took office in Nanking as governor-general of Liang-Kiang, Chang was invited to the city to direct several academies, at the same time assisting Tsêng in cultural matters. In 1881 Chang was made chief compiler of a gazetteer Kao-ch'un, Kiangsu, and corrected the drafts Chang compiled by local scholars. The gazetteer was printed in the same year in 28 chüan under the title 高淳縣志 Kao-ch'un hsien-chih. Late in the 1880's he served for a few years as director of the Lien-ch'ih (蓮池) Academy at Pao-ting, Chihli, and then went to Sian, Shênsi, where he lived tinder the patronage of the Tartar General Jung-lu [q.v.].

Chang Yü-chao and Wu Ju-lun were perhaps the two best writers of the ku-wên, or archaic, style at the close of the Ch'ing period. Chang's prose works were edited and printed in 1882 by his pupil, Cha Yen-hsü (see below), under the title 濂亭文集 Lien-t'ing wên-chi, 8 chüan. Another collection of his prose, entitled Lien-t'ing i-wên (遺文), 5 chüan, and a collection of his verse, Lien-t'ing i-shih (詩), 2 chüan, were printed in 1895 by Li Shu-ch'ang. Chang's letters were collected by Liu Shêng-mu 劉聲木 (T. 述之 H. 十枝 original ming 體信 under the title 張濂卿尺牘 Chang Lien-ch'ing ch'ih-tu, and were printed in 1929 in Liu's 桐城文學叢書 T'ung-ch'êng wên-hsüeh ts'ung-shu; Chang Yü-chao was also a famous calligrapher. Among the disciples of Chang Yü-chao, not including those who were taught by both Chang and Wu Ju-lun (for whom see under Wu), were the following brilliant writers: Chu Ming-p'an 朱銘盤 (T. 俶簡 H. 曼君, 1852-1893); Cha Yen-hsü 查燕緒 (T. 翼甫 H.繼亭, 1843-1917); Sun Pao-t'ien 孫葆田 (T. 佩南, 1840-1911) ; and Chang Chien 張謇 (T. 季直 H. 嗇庵, 嗇翁', 1853-1926). All of them left works, among them the 校經室文集 Chiao-ching shih wên-chi, 6 chüan (1916), a collection of prose by Sun Pao-t'ien; and the 張季子九錄. Chang Chi-tzu chiu-lu (1931), the collected works of Chang Chien, who was the chuang-yüan of 1894, and later became an industrialist and social reformer.

[ 1/491/19b; 6/51/10a; Liu Shêng-mu (see above), T'ung-ch'eng we\ên-hsüeh yfian-yüan k'ao (淵源考) 1909, chüan 10; Lien-t'ing wên-chi (see above), passim.l