CHINA SINCE 1800

                                           Professor Pamela Crossley

                                                     Carson 308

This is a survey of China's nineteenth and twentieth century history, from a time of relative peace and prosperity under the Qing empire (1636-1912), through the profound social, political and economic troubles of the middle-nineteenth century, to the cultural upheaval and political uncertainties of China's two Republics (the Nationalist, 1911-1949, and the People's Republic, 1949 - ). By means of attendance at lectures and discussions, as well as independent reading students will be expected to acquaint themselves both with the particulars of Chinese history in this period and with the major interpretive issues involved in the study of China's experiences.

For first-year students and for students with no background in East Asian history the requirements for the course will consist of the following: a one-hour mid-term (on October 12) and a one-hour final examination; completion of two research assignments (not more than 1000 words of text, due November 9 and November 22) relating to Rauner Special Collections and three very short essays (not more than 500 words each) relating to documentary reading. Second-year students and above who have done a previous history course may, after obtaining permission of the instructor in the first two weeks of the course, substitute a term paper of 3000-4000 words on an approved topic for the paper assignments; graduate students will consult with the instructor to craft an appropriate writing program. All exam requirements remain the same.

COURSE PROTOCOLS

Email: This is the appropriate medium for urgent questions relating to course scheduling or rescheduling and communications relating to absences, illness and so on; these messages will normally be answered each weekday morning between 9am and 10am, and each weekday afternoon between 5pm and 6pm. Do not submit assignments, drafts, bibliographies or questions relating to any of these to the instructor through email until you are invited to do so. This restriction is necessary to prevent an unmanageable flow of messages and material. Information relating to additional readings and scheduling changes will be broadcast to you by email whenever necessary, though the normal means of communication will be via the course module, which you should download and install, and update as advised. 

Learning disabilities: The Dean of the Faculty and Dean of the College have suggested this wording for College syllabi: “Students enrolled in this course and who may need disability-related classroom accommodations are encouraged to make an appointment to see me before the end of the second week of the term. All discussions will remain confidential, although the Student Accessibility Services office may be consulted to discuss appropriate implementation of any accommodation requested.” This will be the policy observed in this course. However, if you write as badly as the author of this passage you will be directed to the Writing Center for help. Let’s adopt this language instead, with due citation of the official source: “Students who need accommodations because of any kind of disability are expected to consult with the instructor before the end of the second week. All discussions will remain confidential. The Student Accessibility Services office may be consulted on appropriate implementation of accommodations.”

The Honor Principle: The purpose of the Honor Principle is to ensure that all work submitted under your name is in fact and entirely your own work. Additionally, it prescribes behavior that in no way interferes with other students in the production and submission of their own best work. If at any point you are in doubt concerning the relationship of your own actions (or prospective actions) to the Honor Principle, you are advised to consult with your instructor. Known violations of the Honor Principle have been and will be referred to the Committee on Standards.

Religious Observances: The Committee on Policy has suggested the following language,which I am happy to adopt: “Some students may wish to take part in religious observances that occur during this academic term. If you have a religious observance that conflicts withyour participation in the course, please meet with me before the end of the second week of the term to discuss appropriate accommodations.”

Food in Class: Do not expect to eat in this class. You may feel free to drink quietly from a covered cup or bottle but do not ever eat during our classes. Please remember that we have no janitorial services. Students who leave trash behind in the classroom will make the poorest possible impression upon the instructor, who will not be cleaning up after you.

Romanization: Like all students who study Chinese history, you will be burdened with the fact that names and terms encountered in this course will have at least two spellings. The older romanization system, Wade-Giles, will be represented in the some of your readings, but scholarship published since 197 will generally use the pinyin system, or some variation of it. You will not be expected to use the systems consistently in examinations, but papers should show evidence of care to use correct transliterations from the pinyinsystem.

Office Hours for Fall Term 2017: Monday, 1-3PM (unless otherwise announced); Tuesday 11-12.

BOOKS

Books required for purchase:

The following books will be regularly required reading. There will be no copies of them on Reserve. You will need to have a personal copy.

Crossley, Pamela The Wobbling Pivot: China since 1800, an Interpretive History (2010 edition)

Cheng et alia, eds., The Search for Modern China: Documentary Collection (1999 edition)

Both books are readily available in paperback editions, and Crossley is also available as an e-book.

OUTLINE AND READINGS:

This reading plan deals in units of weeks. During the weeks indicated, students will discover that the reading background is necessary for finding interest in the lectures (which will supplement and not substitute for the reading). You will note that some weeks will demand the completion of lengthy reading assignments; relative lightness in other weeks and introduction in class of lengthy or technically difficult works should allow students to plan their reading. Books not required for purchase will be found on reserve at Baker Library. For some texts, pages requiring particular attention are indicated, but it is always expected that you will be familiar with the entire book. If the expectations of the reading assignments cause you difficulty, you are urged to consult with the instructor as soon as possible.



Those with no background in Chinese studies may want to pay special attention to the timeline in Crossley,The Wobbling Pivot. There are, in addition, many dependable texts on Chinese history accessible in the Baker stacks.



WEEK I. INTRODUCTION

Topics:

   The Qing Struggle for Coherence
   Economic, Social and Foreign Challenges to Stability


Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp. 1-65 [Chapters 1-3].
      Cheng et alia, The Search for Modern China: 92-109.

   Recommended:

      Li, Fighting Famine in North China: 38-61.

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WEEK II. BASICS OF ORDER AND DISORDER BEFORE 1820

Topics: 
   Environmental deterioration and the Qing response
   Varieties of popular uprisings
   Local management and the dynamics of instability

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.66-69 ["Strategic Borders"].
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, 110-119; 128-136.
      Kuhn, Rebellion and its Enemies :1-49. 

   Recommended:
      Crossley, Orphan Warriors :100-118.
      Li, Fighting Famine in North China, 74-122 (continue to the end of the chapter is desirable).

Optional Essay: Contextualize any one of the seven points addressed in the Second Edict of the Qianlong Emperor, September 1793 (Cheng 107-108), due September 21.


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WEEK III. QING AND THE WORLD, 1815 to 1896

Topics: 
   The Opium War
   The treaty system
   Transformation of relations with Russia and Japan

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp. 70-97.
MIT Visualizing Cultures: The Rise and Fall of the Canton System, Parts I, II and III (access from http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/vis_menu.html

   Recommended:
      Chang, Commissioner Lin and the Opium War, 1-50.
MIT Visualizing Cultures: The First Opium War and The Second Opium War (access from (access from http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/vis_menu.html

      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, 123-127; 157-167.

Optional Essay: Contextualize any one of Qian Yong's ten indictments of popular religion (Cheng 128-131), due September 28.


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WEEK IV. REBEL STATES AND IMPERIAL DISINTEGRATION, 1850 - 1896
Topics: 
   The Taiping War
   Rebel States in Xinjiang and Yunnan
   Rebel Suppression and Dismemberment of the State

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.98-126.
      Kuhn, “Rebellion and its Enemies,”: 135-151.

   Recommended:
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, 136-153.

Optional Essay: Contextualize either Item 7 or Item 8 of the Tsungli/Zongli Yamen instructions to Chinese ambassadors of March 1878 (Cheng 157-158), due October 5.


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WEEK V. FROM REFORM TO REVOLUTION 1870 to 1911
Topics: 
   Reform and the Northern and Southern Intendancies
   The Hundred Days and the Boxers
   Nationalisms

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.126-154.
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, 194-213; 216-219.

   Recommended:
      Crossley, Orphan Warriors:, 62-213.
      Lipman, "Ethnic Violence in Modern China" in Lipman and Harrell, eds., Violence in China, 65-86.


Optional Essay: Pick a passage (a few sentences) from Zeng Guofan's proclamation against the Taipings of 1854 (Cheng 146-149) and contextualize it. Due October 12.



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WEEK VI. DIVISIONS, 1912-1937
Topics: 
   Creation of the first Republic
   The May Fourth Movement
   Socialism, Communism, Utopianism, and Fascism
   Sun Yatsen and Chiang Kaishek
   Political frontiers of Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.155-177.
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, pp. 233-238; 246-251.

   Recommended:
      Schwartz, Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao: 7-96; 172-188 .


Optional Essay: Pick any one of items 1 through 4 of the Tongmeng Hui proclamation of 1907 (Cheng 203-204) and contextualize it. Due October 19.
N.B:: There will be no class meetings this week. Continue reading, essay and exam preparation assigments as usual.

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WEEK VII. WWII IN CHINA
Topics: 
   Manchuria
   Growth of Japanese interests in North China
   Shanghai and Nanjing
   KMT and CCP as anti-Japan partners

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.177-206.
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection, 277-281; 324-333.

   Recommended:
      Teng, Taiwan's Imagined Geography, pp,209-256.
      Lary, The Chinese People at War, 112-145.

Optional Essay: Pick any passage from EITHER Lu Xun's "Views on Chastity" (Cheng 235-238) OR "Report on the North China Famine" (Cheng 246-251) and contextualize it. Due October 26.


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WEEK VIII. THE EARLY PRC, 1949-1962
Topics: 
   The First Five Year Plan
   Radicalization, 1956-1961
   China and Russia

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.207-239.
      Dikotter, Mao's Great Famine: Way of Living, Ways of Dying or (link from Reading menu).

   Recommended:
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection: 358-373.       

Optional Essay: Using one theme or problem, compare the address of Konoye Ayamaro (1937) and the reply of Chiang Kaishek (1938) in Cheng & Lestz, 315-324. Due November 2.


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WEEK IX. FROM RADICALIZATION TO REFORM, 1962-1980
Topics: 
   The Cultural Revolution
   Post-Mao Struggles for Succession
   China and the USA

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.228-258.
      Cheng & Lestz, The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection: 417-434.

   Recommended:
      Lipman and Harrell, Violence in China: 149-202.
      Feuchtwang, "Images of Sub-Humanity" or in the READING menu.


Optional Essay: Put the excerpt from Ding Ling's The Sun Shines over the Sanggan River( Cheng & Lestz, 367-373) into the context of changing village life and the relationships between elites and common farmers. Due November 9.



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WEEK X. PRC AND GLOBAL POWER
Topics: 
   Deng Xiaoping
   China as the world's exporter
   China and elite finance and technology

Readings:
   Required:
      Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot, pp.258-273.

Recommended:
      "Charlie Rose Interviews Henry Kissinger on Obama Trip to China (2009)"(catalog)
      "China Dealing with Three Gorges Dam Issues" (catalog)

Optional Essay: Comment on the significance of Deng Xiaoping's evaluation of Mao Zedong in "Emancipating the Mind is a Vital Political Task" ( Cheng & Lestz, 494-496). Due November 14.